Preliminary screening tools for Nitrosamine formation in drinking water distribution system

Estimating NDMA Formation in a Distribution System Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Monitoring the NDMA byproducts formation during chloroamination process

The occurence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as disinfection by-product (DBPs) in drinking water distribution system has attarcated significant attention due to its potential to be a human carcinogen. In Australia, NDMA frequently occured in high concentration due to high prevalence of chloromination, wastewater influence, and high ammonia concentrations in source waters. While a lot of researchers have developed models for halogenated DBPs such as THMs and HAAs to correlate these DBPs with precursor and disinfection conditions as the modelling parameters, there is no satisfactory model to predict the nonhalogenated DBPs such as NDMA. This study recently published in Journal of American Water Works Association presents a model using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm to estimate NDMA concentraiton in a case study of a chloroaminaated water distribution system in Australia using influencing parameters that had been reported to have an impact on NDMA formation. The model is a useful tool and has the potential to be used as a decision support to manage and improve the chloramine disinfection process. 

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The PhD student behind this chloroamination work is Sina Moradi, who spent 13 months at SA Water to work on different strategies to manage chloroamine decay in water distribution system, in collaboration with Australian Water Quality Centre (AWQC) and Water Corporation (Western Australia). Read Sina's story on his sabbatical experiences.